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Motivation and development philosophy

Learning with flashcard has been demonstrated to significantly improve scores on upcoming examinations, as evidenced by several studies [1,2]. Currently, many digital apps and software are available for learning with flashcards; however, they often require users to bound with their platform, preventing the review of vocabulary wherever and whenever desired. To address this issue, a flashcard program should be customizable and cross-platform, adhering to the concept of decentralization from the field of finance, enabling users to review words freely without being bound to any third-party service provider.

In 1973, Sebastian Leitner introduced the Leitner system, which combined increasing intervals review and spaced repetition to efficiently use flashcards [3]. Currently, there are various flashcard learning methods available, including the widely-used 3-piles method [4]. This method involves going through the entire pile of flashcards and quizzing oneself. Flashcards that are answered perfectly are placed in the YES pile, while those that are answered incorrectly are placed in the NO pile. Flashcards that are answered with hesitation are placed in the MAYBE pile. In a later stage, the non-YES flashcards are reviewed again until all the MAYBE/NO flashcards are moved to the YES pile.

Due to the natural forgetting of the human brain, transferring short-term memory to long-term memory is critical in learning with flashcards. Spaced repetition is used to improve long-term retention to overcome the natural forgetting of the human brain [5,6]. In 1880, Ebbinghaus conducted a classic experiment on forgetting and named the resulting curve the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve [7]. Although proposed in 19th century, a recent study has replicated this curve using several more sophisticated model [8]. Although algorithms such as SuperMemo and half-life regression have shown promise in maintaining long-term memory, they rely on fixed rules and parameters that limit their adaptability and effectiveness. As a result, they cannot deliver on the promise of data-driven algorithms with proven guarantees [9]. Consequently, a contemporary flashcard program must incorporate an adaptive algorithm that caters to individual learning pace and ability. The forthcoming updates of the app will be geared towards achieving this goal.

Future direction

The app is currently available for free to all users in order to gather feedback from a diverse range of fields. Your opinions and suggestions are greatly appriciated, as they will help to maintain and improve the app for everyone. Please take a moment to leave a review or rating to help us better understand your needs and preferences via the in-app contact. You may be grant a membership after the end of test phase.

With the swift advancements in AI, our upcoming AI-powered flashcard application is generating a lot of excitement. The app's intended features, utilizing deep learning techniques such as diffusion modeling, recommendation system, and knowledge tracking, are expected to revolutionize the flashcard experience. The forthcoming generation of flashcards will be specifically tailored to enhance learning outcomes by adapting to each individual's unique pace and style of learning. We are dedicated to incorporating the latest technological innovations to improve the learning experience. Keep an eye out for further updates on the launch date and additional features!


[1] Golding, J.M., Wasarhaley, N.E. and Fletcher, B., 2012. The use of flashcards in an introduction to psychology class. Teaching of Psychology, 39(3), pp.199-202.

[2] Nugroho, Y.S., Nurkamto, J. and Sulistyowati, H., 2012. IMPROVING STUDENTS'VOCABULARY MASTERY USING FLASHCARDS. English Education, 1(1).

[3] Leitner, S., 1995.So lernt man lernen: angewandte Lernpsychologie--ein Weg zum Erfolg. Herder..

[4] The 3-pile method of studying: A recipe for no-stress success (no date) The 3-Pile Method of Studying: A recipe for no-stress success | Lesley University. Available at: (Accessed: April 16, 2023).

[5] Kornell, N., 2009. Optimising learning using flashcards: Spacing is more effective than cramming. Applied Cognitive Psychology: The Official Journal of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 23(9), pp.1297-1317.

[6] Gwern (2009) Spaced repetition for efficient learning, · Available at: (Accessed: April 17, 2023).

[7] Ebbinghaus, H.,1880 Urmanuskript "Ueber das Gedächtniß". Passau: Passavia Universitätsverlag.

[8] Murre, J.M. and Dros, J., 2015. Replication and analysis of Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve. PloS one ,10 (7), p.e0120644.

[9] Tabibian, B., Upadhyay, U., De, A., Zarezade, A., Schölkopf, B. and Gomez-Rodriguez, M., 2019. Enhancing human learning via spaced repetition optimization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(10), pp.3988-3993.